- “When the multiverse and many-worlds collide” by Justin Mullins (The New Scientist; 2011.06.01) – http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg21028154.200-when-the-multiverse-and-manyworlds-collide.html
- “Are Many Worlds and the Multiverse the Same Idea?” by Sean Carroll (Cosmic Variance blog at Discover Magazine; ) – http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/cosmicvariance/2011/05/26/are-many-worlds-and-the-multiverse-the-same-idea/
- “Physical Theories, Eternal Inflation, and Quantum Universe” by Yasunori Nomura (arXiv.org > hep-th > arXiv:1104.2324v2 [hep-th])- http://arxiv.org/abs/1104.2324
- Abstract:

*We present a framework in which well-defined predictions are obtained in an eternally inflating multiverse, based on the principles of quantum mechanics. We show that the entire multiverse is described purely from the viewpoint of a single “observer,” who describes the world as a quantum state defined on his/her past light cones bounded by the (stretched) apparent horizons. We find that quantum mechanics plays an essential role in regulating infinities. The framework is “gauge invariant,” i.e. predictions do not depend on how spacetime is parametrized, as it should be in a theory of quantum gravity. Our framework provides a fully unified treatment of quantum measurement processes and the multiverse. We conclude that the eternally inflating multiverse and many worlds in quantum mechanics are the same. Other important implications include: global spacetime can be viewed as a derived concept; the multiverse is a transient phenomenon during the world relaxing into a supersymmetric Minkowski state. We also present a theory of “initial conditions” for the multiverse. By extrapolating our framework to the extreme, we arrive at a picture that the entire multiverse is a fluctuation in the stationary, fractal “mega-multiverse,” in which an infinite sequence of multiverse productions occurs. The framework discussed here does not suffer from problems/paradoxes plaguing other measures proposed earlier, such as the youngness paradox, the Boltzmann brain problem, and a peculiar “end” of time.* - “The Multiverse Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics” by Raphael Bousso and Leonard Susskind (arXiv.org > hep-th > arXiv:1105.3796v1 [hep-th]) – http://arxiv.org/abs/1105.3796
- Abstract:

*We argue that the many-worlds of quantum mechanics and the many worlds of the multiverse are the same thing, and that the multiverse is necessary to give exact operational meaning to probabilistic predictions from quantum mechanics.*

Decoherence – the modern version of wave-function collapse – is subjective in that it depends on the choice of a set of unmonitored degrees of freedom, the “environment”. In fact decoherence is absent in the complete description of any region larger than the future light-cone of a measurement event. However, if one restricts to the causal diamond – the largest region that can be causally probed – then the boundary of the diamond acts as a one-way membrane and thus provides a preferred choice of environment. We argue that the global multiverse is a representation of the many-worlds (all possible decoherent causal diamond histories) in a single geometry.

We propose that it must be possible in principle to verify quantum-mechanical predictions exactly. This requires not only the existence of exact observables but two additional postulates: a single observer within the universe can access infinitely many identical experiments; and the outcome of each experiment must be completely definite. In causal diamonds with finite surface area, holographic entropy bounds imply that no exact observables exist, and both postulates fail: experiments cannot be repeated infinitely many times; and decoherence is not completely irreversible, so outcomes are not definite. We argue that our postulates can be satisfied in “hats” (supersymmetric multiverse regions with vanishing cosmological constant). We propose a complementarity principle that relates the approximate observables associated with finite causal diamonds to exact observables in the hat.

## 2011.06.03

### Decoherence

## 2011.04.12

### Inside black holes

- “Planets Could Orbit Singularities Inside Black Holes” (The Physics arXiv Blog; 2011.04.11) – http://www.technologyreview.com/blog/arxiv/26626/
*The discovery of stable orbits inside certain kinds of black hole implies that planets and perhaps even life could survive inside these weird objects, says one cosmologist* - “Is there life inside black holes?” by Vyacheslav I. Dokuchaev (arXiv.org > gr-qc > arXiv:1103.6140; 2011.04.09) – http://arxiv.org/abs/1103.6140
- Abstract:

*Inside the rotating or charged black holes there are bound periodic planetary orbits, which not coming out nor terminated at the central singularity. The stable periodic orbits inside black holes exist even for photons. We call these bound orbits by the orbits of the third kind, following to Chandrasekhar classification for particle orbits in the black hole gravitational field. It is shown that an existence domain for the third kind orbits is a rather spacious, and so there is a place for life inside the supermassive black holes in the galactic nuclei. The advanced civilizations of the third kind (according to Kardashev classification) may inhabit the interiors of supermassive black holes, being invisible from the outside and basking as in the light of the central singularity and the orbital photons.*

Related here: Astronomy & Astrophysics – https://eikonal.wordpress.com/2011/05/09/astronomy-astrophysics/ | Astronomic tables and calculators – https://eikonal.wordpress.com/2010/01/28/astronomic-tables-and-calculators/ | Solar planetary system – https://eikonal.wordpress.com/2011/02/17/solar-planetary-system/ | Physics Sites – https://eikonal.wordpress.com/2010/02/12/physics-sites/

## 2011.02.16

### Post-Newtonian gravity

- Clifford M. Will’s papers on Post-Newtonian approach:
- 0) “Generation of Post-Newtonian Gravitational Radiation via Direct Integration of the Relaxed Einstein Equations” by Clifford M. Will (arXiv:gr-qc/9910057v1; 1999.10.15) – http://arxiv.org/abs/gr-qc/9910057
- Abstract:

*The completion of a network of advanced laser-interferometric gravitational-wave observatories around 2001 will make possible the study of the inspiral and coalescence of binary systems of compact objects (neutron stars and black holes), using gravitational radiation. To extract useful information from the waves, such as the masses and spins of the bodies, theoretical general relativistic gravitational waveform templates of extremely high accuracy will be needed for filtering the data, probably as accurate as $O[(v/c)^6]$ beyond the predictions of the quadrupole formula. We summarize a method, called DIRE, for Direct Integration of the Relaxed Einstein Equations, which extends and improves an earlier framework due to Epstein and Wagoner, in which Einstein’s equations are recast as a flat spacetime wave equation with source composed of matter confined to compact regions and gravitational non-linearities extending to infinity. The new method is free of divergences or undefined integrals, correctly predicts all gravitational wave “tail” effects caused by backscatter of the outgoing radiation off the background curved spacetime, and yields radiation that propagates asymptotically along true null cones of the curved spacetime. The method also yields equations of motion through $O[(v/c)^4]$, radiation-reaction terms at $O[(v/c)^5]$ and $O[(v/c)^7]$, and gravitational waveforms and energy flux through $O[(v/c)^4]$, in agreement with other approaches. We report on progress in evaluating the $O[(v/c)^6]$ contributions.* - 1) “Post-Newtonian Gravitational Radiation and Equations of Motion via Direct Integration of the Relaxed Einstein Equations. I. Foundations” by Michael E. Pati, Clifford M. Will (arXiv:gr-qc/0007087v1; 2000.07.31) – http://arxiv.org/abs/gr-qc/0007087
- Abstract:

*We present a self-contained framework called Direct Integration of the Relaxed Einstein Equations (DIRE) for calculating equations of motion and gravitational radiation emission for isolated gravitating systems based on the post-Newtonian approximation. We cast the Einstein equations into their “relaxed” form of a flat-spacetime wave equation together with a harmonic gauge condition, and solve the equations formally as a retarded integral over the past null cone of the field point (chosen to be within the near zone when calculating equations of motion, and in the far zone when calculating gravitational radiation). The “inner” part of this integral(within a sphere of radius one gravitational wavelength) is approximated in a slow-motion expansion using standard techniques; the “outer” part, extending over the radiation zone, is evaluated using a null integration variable. We show generally and explicitly that all contributions to the inner integrals that depend on cancel corresponding terms from the outer integrals, and that the outer integrals converge at infinity, subject only to reasonable assumptions about the past behavior of the source. The method cures defects that plagued previous “brute-force” slow-motion approaches to motion and gravitational radiation for isolated systems. We detail the procedure for iterating the solutions in a weak-field, slow-motion approximation, and derive expressions for the near-zone field through 3.5 post-Newtonian order in terms of Poisson-like potentials.* - 2) “Post-Newtonian gravitational radiation and equations of motion via direct integration of the relaxed Einstein equations. II. Two-body equations of motion to second post-Newtonian order, and radiation-reaction to 3.5 post-Newtonian order” by Michael E. Pati, Clifford M. Will (arXiv:gr-qc/0201001v1; 2001.12.31) – http://arxiv.org/abs/gr-qc/0201001
- Abstract:

*We derive the equations of motion for binary systems of compact bodies in the post-Newtonian (PN) approximation to general relativity. Results are given through 2PN order (order (v/c)^4 beyond Newtonian theory), and for gravitational radiation reaction effects at 2.5PN and 3.5PN orders. The method is based on a framework for direct integration of the relaxed Einstein equations (DIRE) developed earlier, in which the equations of motion through 3.5PN order can be expressed in terms of Poisson-like potentials that are generalizations of the instantaneous Newtonian gravitational potential, and in terms of multipole moments of the system and their time derivatives. All potentials are well defined and free of divergences associated with integrating quantities over all space. Using a model of the bodies as spherical, non-rotating fluid balls whose characteristic size s is small compared to the bodies’ separation r, we develop a method for carefully extracting only terms that are independent of the parameter s, thereby ignoring tidal interactions, spin effects, and internal self-gravity effects. Through 2.5PN order, the resulting equations agree completely with those obtained by other methods; the new 3.5PN back-reaction results are shown to be consistent with the loss of energy and angular momentum via radiation to infinity.* - 3) “Post-Newtonian gravitational radiation and equations of motion via direct integration of the relaxed Einstein equations. III. Radiation reaction for binary systems with spinning bodies” by Clifford M. Will (arXiv:gr-qc/0502039v2; 2005.04.29) – http://arxiv.org/abs/gr-qc/0502039
- Abstract:

*Using post-Newtonian equations of motion for fluid bodies that include radiation-reaction terms at 2.5 and 3.5 post-Newtonian (PN) order (O[(v/c)^5] and O[(v/c)^7] beyond Newtonian order), we derive the equations of motion for binary systems with spinning bodies. In particular we determine the effects of radiation-reaction coupled to spin-orbit effects on the two-body equations of motion, and on the evolution of the spins. For a suitable definition of spin, we reproduce the standard equations of motion and spin-precession at the first post-Newtonian order. At 3.5PN order, we determine the spin-orbit induced reaction effects on the orbital motion, but we find that radiation damping has no effect on either the magnitude or the direction of the spins. Using the equations of motion, we find that the loss of total energy and total angular momentum induced by spin-orbit effects precisely balances the radiative flux of those quantities calculated by Kidder et al. The equations of motion may be useful for evolving inspiraling orbits of compact spinning binaries.* - 4) “Post-Newtonian gravitational radiation and equations of motion via direct integration of the relaxed Einstein equations. IV. Radiation reaction for binary systems with spin-spin coupling” by Han Wang, Clifford M. Will (arXiv:gr-qc/0701047v2; 2007.03.16) – http://arxiv.org/abs/gr-qc/0701047
- Abstract:

*Using post-Newtonian equations of motion for fluid bodies that include radiation-reaction terms at 2.5 and 3.5 post-Newtonian (PN) order O[(v/c)^5] and O[(v/c)^7] beyond Newtonian order), we derive the equations of motion for binary systems with spinning bodies, including spin-spin effects. In particular we determine the effects of radiation-reaction coupled to spin-spin effects on the two-body equations of motion, and on the evolution of the spins. We find that radiation damping causes a 3.5PN order, spin-spin induced precession of the individual spins. This contrasts with the case of spin-orbit coupling, where there is no effect on the spins at 3.5PN order. Employing the equations of motion and of spin precession, we verify that the loss of total energy and total angular momentum induced by spin-spin effects precisely balances the radiative flux of those quantities calculated by Kidder et al.* - 5) “Post-Newtonian gravitational radiation and equations of motion via direct integration of the relaxed Einstein equations. V. Evidence for the strong equivalence principle to second post-Newtonian order” by Thomas Mitchell, Clifford M. Will (arXiv:0704.2243v2 [gr-qc]; 2007.07.17)- http://arxiv.org/abs/0704.2243
- Abstract:

*Using post-Newtonian equations of motion for fluid bodies valid to the second post-Newtonian order, we derive the equations of motion for binary systems with finite-sized, non-spinning but arbitrarily shaped bodies. In particular we study the contributions of the internal structure of the bodies (such as self-gravity) that would diverge if the size of the bodies were to shrink to zero. Using a set of virial relations accurate to the first post-Newtonian order that reflect the stationarity of each body, and redefining the masses to include 1PN and 2PN self-gravity terms, we demonstrate the complete cancellation of a class of potentially divergent, structure-dependent terms that scale as s^{-1} and s^{-5/2}, where s is the characteristic size of the bodies. This is further evidence of the Strong Equivalence Principle, and supports the use of post-Newtonian approximations to derive equations of motion for strong-field bodies such as neutron stars and black holes. This extends earlier work done by Kopeikin.*

- 0) “Generation of Post-Newtonian Gravitational Radiation via Direct Integration of the Relaxed Einstein Equations” by Clifford M. Will (arXiv:gr-qc/9910057v1; 1999.10.15) – http://arxiv.org/abs/gr-qc/9910057

## 2010.07.22

### Library of metrics

## ADM decomposition

In dimensions the ADM (Arnowitt-Deser-Misner) split of the metric is given by (, ):

where is the **lapse variable**, is the **shift 3-vector**.

Here:

- is the
**Ricci scalar**, - is the
**extrinsic curvature**, .

Source: “Unifying inflation with dark energy in modified F(R) Horava-Lifshitz gravity” by E. Elizalde, S. Nojiri, S. D. Odintsov, D. Saez-Gomez; arXiv.org > hep-th > arXiv:1006.3387 (http://arxiv4.library.cornell.edu/abs/1006.3387).

More:

- “Arnowitt-Deser-Misner formalism” by Stanley Deser (2008; Scholarpedia, 3(10):7533.) – http://www.scholarpedia.org/article/Arnowitt-Deser-Misner_formalism
- “The Dynamics of General Relativity” by R. Arnowitt, S. Deser, C. W. Misner; republished as arXiv:gr-qc/0405109v1 – http://lanl.arxiv.org/abs/gr-qc/0405109